# HealthySaturday: How to keep diabetes under control?
There are basically two types of diabetes. Type I and Type II diabetes which can confuse us at times. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases which affect the way our body regulates glucose and blood sugar. Glucose works as the fuel which feeds cells of our body. It needs insulin to enter into the cells.
People who have type I diabetes can’t produce insulin in their body which stops glucose to reach cells. People with Type II diabetes too don’t respond to insulin and as the disease grows, the body starts producing less insulin.
Both Type I and Type II diseases can result in chronically high blood sugar cells that increase the risk of diabetes complications.
Let’s understand the symptoms of diabetes
When an individual isn’t able to control diabetes, many symptoms start to occur in both types of diabetes.
– Blurry vision
– Feeling very fatigued
– Frequent urination
– Cuts or sores that don’t heal properly
– Feeling very thirsty and urge of drinking water a lot
– Feeling very hungry
People with diabetes type I may also experience unintentional weight loss, mood changes and irritability. On the other hand people with Type II diabetes may feel numbness and tingle in their feet and hands.
There are many symptoms which are similar in Type I and Type II diabetes. Many people who have Type II diabetes don’t have symptoms for many years. However, it develops slowly over the course of time. Few people don’t even experience any symptoms until complications develop.
People with Type I diabetes experience rapid development of symptoms. This mostly occurs over the time of several weeks. Type I diabetes that was known as juvenile diabetes at first usually develops in childhood or adolescence. However, it is possible to get Type I diabetes in the later stage of life.
How diabetes Type I occurs?
The immune system of body acts as a fighter who fights foreign invaders such as bacteria and harmful bacteria. People who suffer from Type I diabetes, the immune system in their body confuses with the foreign invaders with healthy cells. The fighter of the body starts fighting within the body and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Once, the beta cells are destroyed, the body is not able to produce insulin.
Researchers have been working on to find why the immune system attacks the body’s own cells, but they haven’t been able to find the exact reasons. However, this may have something to do with the environment or genetic factors, like exposure to viruses.
How diabetes type II occurs?
People who have Type II diabetes are resistant to insulin. The body produces insulin but it’s not used effectively. Researchers are working on finding out why some people become insulin resistant and others don’t. It has been found out that several lifestyle factors including inactivity and excess weight come into play. Other environmental and genetic factors might also contribute to the cause.
When an individual develops Type II diabetes, the pancreas will try to compensate by increasing more insulin. Now, the body is unable to use insulin effectively, glucose will accumulate in his/her body.
Is diabetes common?
India being a culturally-diverse country, loves food. Balance diet and exercises are still a myth to the majority of Indians as they don’t care about their nutrients intake and calories burned. This has made diabetes become the country’s fastest-growing disease over the last few years.
According to a report by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), there were more than 74 million cases of diabetes in 2017. This figure is expected to grow almost double to 134 million by 2025. The report says that in South-East Asia (India, Maldives, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Mauritius) people between the age group of 50 to 70 are more prone to diabetes. Men and women both get diabetes at the roughly same rate. So, this is clear that diabetes is a common thing in India.
Risk factors for Type I
Age: Type I diabetes can appear at any age but it is more prone to children and adolescents.
Geography: The prevalence of Type I diabetes depends upon the distance from the equator. Living away from the equator increases the chances of diabetes Type I.
Family history: People with a family history (parents or siblings) with Type I diabetes have a higher risk of getting it.
Genetics: When certain genes points are present in the body, it increases the chances of Type I diabetes.
Note: Type I diabetes can’t be prevented
Risk factors for Type II
– If you are more than 45 years of age
– Have a lot of belly fat
– If physically inactive
– Are overweight or obese
– Have prediabetes (little elevated blood sugar levels)
– Have an immediate family member with Type II diabetes
– If gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.
– Have polycystic ovarian syndrome
Note: It is possible to decrease the risk of getting Type II diabetes through lifestyle changes:
– Eat a balanced diet, reduce the intake of sugar and overly processed food.
– Maintain a healthy weight
– Increase activity levels. Play sport or exercise daily.
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